The Guy Liddell Diaries, Volume I: 1939-1942: 1939-1942: MI5's Director of Counter-Espionage in World War II

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The Guy Liddell Diaries, Volume I: 1939-1942: 1939-1942: MI5's Director of Counter-Espionage in World War II

The Guy Liddell Diaries, Volume I: 1939-1942: 1939-1942: MI5's Director of Counter-Espionage in World War II

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His unhappy marriage to Hon. Calypso Baring was dissolved in 1943 after she had left him and joined her half-brother Lorillard Suffern Tailer in America. He subsequently fought a long legal battle for custody of their children. [1] [2] [3] Later career [ ] But the commandant did apply many forms of psychological pressure. He created an eerily silent and isolating environment at Latchmere House that seemed to evoke a sense of foreboding among the captives. Guards wore tennis shoes to muffle the sound of their steps. Cells were bugged. No prisoners encountered one another. “No chivalry. No gossip. No cigarettes,” Stephens wrote in his reports. Prisoners were kept alone and in silence. Food was kept bland, and no cigarettes were to be offered. Sleep deprivation was a common tactic, as was the hooding of prisoners for long stretches of time. Records of the London Reception Centre at the Royal Patriotic Schools– these files are scattered across KV 2 and KV 4 and are broken down in more detail in our guide to immigration records. The London Reception Centre was established to process aliens arriving in the UK, to gather intelligence from them on conditions in occupied Europe, and to screen arrivals for possible enemy agents. On the 14th May 1905, in Madras, aged 36 and an engineer, Liddell was initiated into the Pitt Macdonald Lodge of Freemasons. If he had spent his early adult life in India, up until at least 1905, this would explain why he does not appear in any UK census between 1871 and 1901. Nor does he appear in the UK's 1911 Census.

On that marriage certificate Liddell is described as a bachelor. However, in the Morning Post, of Tuesday 5th June 1894, the following notice appeared: Chapman Pincher's account of the history of MI5 and SIS differs from those written with official involvement, including Christopher Andrew's. Pincher (an investigative journalist specialising in intelligence) claims the book written by Andrew (a Cambridge University professor of history, also specialising in intelligence) deliberately omits important material. [19] On the other hand, Andrew has reviewed documents unavailable to Pincher. [20] Generally, this article follows Andrew's account and cites him. Where the claims are irreconcilable this article gives an inline citation to Pincher alone. A major difference is Pincher's claim that Hollis was a " mole" and that official information about him has been obfuscated to support denial. Informed commentators differ in how much to believe of Pincher's claims. [21] Liddell would never again marry. He soon abandoned the upscale London home he shared with Calypso for a more modest flat. He became more reclusive as time went on devoting much of his energy to MI5 work. Philby, Kim (2010). "Chapter VII. From War to Peace". My Silent War: The Autobiography of a Spy. London: Random House. ISBN 9781407060231. Archived from the original on 10 August 2017 . Retrieved 31 October 2014. The five are thought to have been recruited from Cambridge where thay were all undergraduates in the 1930s.

Primary Sources

Stephens fancied himself an amateur psychologist and did a great deal of reading on the human psyche, including Freud and Jung. His interrogative abilities, he claimed, stemmed from “years of studying the complex minds of the Gurkhas he had commanded,” Thomas writes. “We are here to crush a spy psychologically,” he told his staff, according to Thomas. “Crush his mind into small pieces, examine those pieces and then if they reveal qualities useful to the war effort—like becoming double agents—they must be mentally rebuilt. Those who do not have the qualities we require will end up on the gallows or before a firing squad in the Tower of London.”

Hint – jump ahead for fun to Volume 20, the Spring of 1951, and follow along with Liddell as he first learns about Donald Maclean’s treason and then watches helplessly as he and Guy Burgess disappear. Rudolf Hess, Hitler's former deputy, who flew to Britain in 1941 with what he called a peace plan, was given a life sentence. He killed himself in Spandau prison, Berlin, in 1987. Under section 62 of the Consumer Rights Act 2015, the terms of a contract are considered unfair if they’re not made in good faith and cause a significant imbalance in the relationship between the trader and consumer, to the detriment of the consumer. Our adviceRegarding his parentage, Liddell's death certificate states that he was the son of Henry Liddell, a Tea Planter, and his wife Jane McElure (sic) but Henry might have been a familiar name for his father (or an error on the entry), as he was definitely Willam Byam Liddell's son. Liddell's elder brother was Major General Sir William Andrew Liddell (1865-1949). His father's marriage announcement, from the Glasgow Herald of 1st May 1863 and his death notice, from the Madras Weekly Mail of Thursday 31st October 1901, are attached. Later during the war, in 1944, Archer transferred to Section IX which was concerned with Soviet and communist counter-intelligence with Kim Philby as head of section. It was unfortunate for both Archer and SIS that Philby, later to be unmasked as a Soviet " mole", recognised her considerable abilities. [32] In his memoirs My Silent War Philby wrote: In 1952, while examining the papers left in Burgess's flat, Archer found documents describing secret meetings that were then discovered to have been written by John Cairncross. [46] [51] [note 9] Cairncross was tailed going to a meeting with his controller, Yuri Modin, but the actual meeting did not take place when the controller spotted the surveillance. [52] Although Cairncross would not fully admit he was a spy, he was forced to resign and he moved to the United States. [46] [note 10] William Joyce, aka Lord Haw-Haw, was interrogated at Latchmere House and ultimately hanged for treason in 1946. Photo: Wikimedia Commons Igor Gouzenko, a cipher clerk in Soviet embassy in Ottawa, defected in 1945 with a mass of documents, one of which led to the arrest of Alan Nunn May for spying. Philby recommended that Hollis rather than Archer should be sent to Canada to interview Gouzenko although he knew Archer would be better able to do the job. [note 5] Agreeing this, MI5 sent Hollis and yet it was Philby at SIS who was apprised of progress and who altered, delayed and omitted messages before passing them on to MI5. By these means, Philby stopped Archer from having any involvement in the case. [41] [42]

Why he started writing the diary remains unclear even after all the years that have elapsed. Nigel West, editor of a two-volume collection of the diary, The Guy Liddell Diaries 1939-1942 and The Guy Liddell Diaries 1942-1945 (Routledge 2005, 2006) offers few clues. Liddell never talked about his personal life. The diaries, which were dictated to his secretary, Margot Huggins, at the end of each day, demonstrate the dry sense of humour of a man who did not suffer fools gladly. Krivitsky's disclosures might have made it possible to work out that both Donald Maclean and Kim Philby were Soviet agents but this opportunity was missed. Andrew argues that the clues were too slight to have been usable. [18] Chapman Pincher considers [note 1] that Archer and Hollis were at fault but largely absolves Archer because she was almost immediately moved to completely different work. Hollis then filled her old post. [22] Archer's debriefing completely transformed the understanding of the top echelons of MI5 about current Soviet espionage activity in Britain – they now realised it was extensive whereas only a year earlier it had wrongly been thought non-existent. [23] In January 1941 one such Soviet agent Anthony Blunt, who was working within MI5, passed Archer's entire report to his Soviet controller. [24] The diary entry continues: "[Lascelles] told me that Blunt had on one occasion intimated to the Queen [the present Queen's mother] that he was an atheist … and that the Queen had been a little shaken by his remarks. He was certain that if he now went up and told her that Anthony was a Communist, her immediate reaction would be 'I always told you so'."

Stephens was born in Alexandria, Egypt, in 1900 and attended the Lycée Francais there before returning to England to attend Dulwich College, the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich and then Quetta Cadet College in India. He spoke seven languages fluently, among them Urdu, Arabic and Somali and spent years as an officer and rising star with the Gurkhas, the elite regiment of the Nepalese troops in the British army, according to Gordon Thomas in his book, Secret Wars: One Hundred Years of British Intelligence Inside MI5 and MI6. Stephens was seconded to MI5, and in July of 1940, he and his staff moved to Latchmere House, where they set up shop amid 30 cells.

Blunt was not confronted about his wartime spying for the Russians until 1964 when he confessed in return for immunity from prosecution after being identified in private by a Cambridge contemporary, Michael Straight. He was outed in the Commons by Margaret Thatcher in 1979. Meanwhile Maxwell Knight found an agent to infiltrate the CP. Olga Gray worked for the CP for six years, from 1931 to 1937, first as a volunteer and then full time at King Street. She was surprised to find herself growing to like these Bolsheviks of whom she had heard such hair-raising things. When she began to help Percy Glading with a scheme to convey plans of a British gun to the Soviet Union, she found herself liking the man. Although Olga wanted to give up her job with MI5 Knight managed to persuade her to stay on until Glading was in the net. Glading went down for six years and Olga suffered agonies of guilt about his wife and daughter. (4) Keith Jeffery, MI6: The History of the Secret Intelligence Service (2010) On 28 October 1939, he writes: 'Miss Huggins has just made a request for more light... The immediate result has been that every light in the building has gone out. I am told that the electricians have just arrived. If they are responsible they should be interned for impeding the prosecution of the war.' Guy Liddell, a fellow officer at Latchmere House, wrote in his diary of Stephens’ efforts to prevent violence there after an officer from MI9 “manhandled” a prisoner during an interrogation. “It is quite clear to me that we cannot have this sort of thing going on in our establishment,” Liddell wrote. “Apart from the moral aspect of the whole thing, I am quite convinced that these Gestapo methods do not pay in the long run.” At one point, Stephens expelled an interrogator from the War Office for striking a prisoner.

Documents on the same theme

Appointed to MI5 in 1916 as typist/clerk, by 1929 Sissmore had become Controller of the Registry and of women staff. [8] [3] At the time, and until 1940, Vernon Kell was director of MI5. Sissmore was awarded the MBE in 1923 as an "Administrative Assistant, General Staff, War Office" and in 1929 moved to B Division (investigations and inquiries) where she was in charge of investigating Soviet intelligence and subversion activity. This made her MI5's first woman officer and she was to become what Christopher Andrew has described as a "formidable interrogator". [9] [10] John Oliver Archer (22 September 1887 – 15 September 1968) was born in Walton-on-the-Naze. In 1916 he married Esther Chilton and they had two children born in 1917 and 1922. Esther died in 1930. [2] Their son, John Chilton Archer, also became a wing commander in the RAF but he was killed in action in 1943. [6] In the 1960s Peter Wright and Arthur Martin conducted their own private enquiry into whether Hollis, director of MI5 or Graham Mitchell, deputy director, were traitors. [note 11]



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